Veritas News – Illuminating the World

Veritas News Service Report

By Johnathan Masullo


Illuminating the World

Man uses it to light his path, to light a dark room, in rituals, to bring warmth, in sporting events, to cure lack of knowledge, to change guard, and to lead his fellow man. Did the reader deduce the object? The object is the torch. The torch is one of many objects used by man with an assortment of symbolic meanings and purposes. The author has a curiosity of the torch. This interest commenced when observing the military memorabilia of the author’s grandfather. He was attached to 1st Battalion, 2nd Marines during World War II. It is also worth mentioning that the torch is used in the regiment and division’s insignia. The author will study the definition, the symbolic nature, and the history of the torch used in diverse backgrounds.

What is a torch? First, the etymology of the term. The word ‘torch’ can be traced back to the Latin torquere, which means to “to twist, to bend, to wind, to turn around, to turn, to torture, to torment, to bend, or to distort.”[1] Torquere evolved to ‘torche’ in Old French[2] and Old English.[3] Finally, ‘torche’ developed to the modern day English ‘torch.’[4] Secondly, ‘torch’ denotes “a light or luminary formed of some combustible substance.”[5] In ancient times, man would “twist flax, hemp, etc., soaked with tallow or other inflammable substance”[6] to create luminosity. Not only does man use the torch to light his environment, but also uses esoteric and symbolic significance.

Man is a “symbolic creature,”[7] after all Confucius (551 – 479 B.C.) allegedly stated, “Signs and symbols rule the world, not words or laws.”[8] Unlike other creatures inhabiting Earth, God endowed man with an exceptional academic faculty. Every creature dwelling Earth has its own communiqué and intelligence, but man’s facilities to communicate and to reason are unique. With man’s rational faculty, he adjoins meaning to the visible and to the invisible, for instance, the color blue. Tangibly man uses his sight and indicates it “blue.” Intangibly man uses his faculty to add significance. Depending on the source, the color blue has a range of meanings. Some people view blue as masculine, or trust, or wisdom, or faith, or depression, or calm, etc. For one tangible, there are several intangibles. Nearly, if not, all physical articles have symbolic meanings.

So it is with the torch. Depending on the individual or civilization, the symbolic nature of the torch is illumination, life, death, love, warmth, war, knowledge, ignorance, leader, day, night, ritual, fertility, chaos, and destruction. The preceding does not encompass every meaning, but an overall view of the torch. The reader will witness the fore-mentioned all through this commentary. The torch has a considerable importance with some cultures throughout history. The author shall being with the ancient Greeks and Romans (if different from the Greek deities, then all Roman equivalents will be in parenthesis).

The first and last words of the Greek alphabet are alpha and omega. Symbolically, these two words represent “the beginning and end of all things.”[9] Alpha, owing to its shape, is “related to the pair of compasses, an attribute of God the creator.”[10] Omega is the “torch, i.e., to the fire of apocalyptic destruction.”[11] Interestingly, John in Revelation says Jesus Christ is “the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end.”[12]

Ares (Mars) was the god of war. “His symbols were the spear and the burning torch. Before the introduction of trumpets, two priests of Ares, marching in front of the armies, hurled the torch at the foe as the signal of battle.”[13] Artemis (Diana) was the goddess of hunting, childbirth, and harvest. Artemis (Diana) possessed a torch and was known as the bearer of light. When the torch was upright, it represented the sun in the east.[14] When the torch was reversed, it represented the sun in the west.[15] “As Apollo is the luminous god of day, she with her torch is a goddess of light by night and in course of time becomes identified with all possible goddesses of moon and night.”[16]

Comus was the god of revelry, feasting, and nocturnal pleasures.[17] Comus holds an inverted torch symbolizing sleep or drunkenness.[18] “[T]he torch seems to be falling from his right hand as sleep relaxes it. And for fear lest the flames of the torch come too near his leg, Komos bends his lower left leg over towards the right and holds the torch out on his left side, keeping his right hand at a distance by means of the projecting knee in order that he may avoid the breath of the torch. . . . [T]he torch shines on every part of it and brings it into the light. . . . The torches give a faint light, enough for the revelers to see what is close in front of them, but not enough for us to see them.”[19]

Demeter (Ceres) was the goddess of husbandry and civilization.[20] “[E]mblems [that had] a mystic significance, as the torch and serpent, as living in the Earth, and as symbolizing a renewal of life by shedding its skin.”[21] Eileithyia (Lucina) was the goddess of childbirth.[22] She held a “torch, as the symbol of birth into the light of the world.”[23] The Eleusinian mysteries were mystic festivals that celebrated Demeter (Ceres) and Persephone (Proserpine) in Attica.[24] The Eleusinian priests, or Daduchos, were torchbearers and supervisors of sacrifices.[25] Eos (Aurora) was the goddess of dawn.[26] She was described as “hovering in the sky, or riding on her chariot, moving with a torch before Ares, or sprinkling dew from a vase over the Earth.”[27]

Eros (Cupid or Amor) is the god of love and son of Aphrodite (Venus).[28] “It was he who lighted the flame of love in the hearts of the gods and men, armed either with a bow and arrows or else a flaming torch.”[29] Enyo (Bellona) was the goddess of war and she was the sister of the war god Ares (Mars).[30] She is described as armed with a scourge and carrying a torch in hand.[31] Hecate was a “tutelary deity.”[32] She presided over magic arts and spells. She personified “the moon, or of the evil side of the feminine principle, responsible for madness, obsession, and lunacy.”[33] She possessed a torch in hand, a symbol for the moon’s light, which assisted Demeter (Ceres) in her search for her daughter. Hestia (Venus) was the goddess of the hearth and of its fire.[34] She is described as “completely clothed and veiled, with chalice, torch, scepter, and palladium.”[35]

Hymen was the god of marriage and presided over nuptial solemnities. He, according to some scholars, was the son of Apollo and Urania; according to others, of Bacchus and Venus. He carried a lit bridal torch and wore a nuptial veil.[36] Pan (Faunus) was the god of hills, woods, flocks, herdsmen, and hunters.[37] “He was honored with an annual sacrifice and torch procession.[38] Panathenaea was a festival celebrated in honor of the goddess Athena.[39] “Competitions of cyclic choruses and other kinds of dances, torch races and trireme races, added to the splendor of the festival.”[40] Thanatos (Mors) was the god of death, a son of Night and the twin brother of Sleep.[41] He is often depicted with an extinguished torch upside-down.[42]

The Greeks and Romans (more so the Greeks) had frequent torch races to honor their deities. These torch races were held at night and at the city of the celebrated god or goddess.[43] Young men of the vicinity or of the nation participated in these torch races. “[Y]oung men ran, with torches in their hands . . . and whoever reached the goal with his torches alight was the winner. Other young men without torches ran after the torchbearers, and the latter, if overtaken, had to hand over their torches to the former.”[44]

In the Mithraic mysteries, which are Persian in origin, twins Cautes and Cautopates were torchbearers.[45] One was depicted with an erected lit torch whereas the other was depicted with an inverted extinguished torch. Scholars believe the upright-lit torch represented life, day, or both, and the capsized extinguished torch represented death, night, or both.[46] In the Thracian culture, Bendis was the goddess of the moon.[47] The Greeks identified her with Artemis, Hecate, and Persephone. Bendideia, which was a public festival in her honor, consisted of torch races and a formal procession at Piraeus.[48]

In Arabic cultures, minarets, which are “a slender, lofty tower attached to a mosque and surrounded by one or more projecting balconies, from which the summons to prayer is cried by the muezzin,”[49] are a “symbolic torch of spiritual illumination.”[50] Minarets grip “the symbols of the tower (on account of its height) and the belvedere or watch-tower (signifying the consciousness).”[51] Minarets derived from the Pharos, the great Lighthouse of Alexandria. Lastly, in ancient Arabia, Atthar was the goddess of enlightenment.[52] She was known as the “Torch of the Gods.”[53]

Saint Dominic de Guzman (1170 – 1221) established the Dominican Order, also known as the “Preaching Friars.”[54] In 1216, Pope Honorius III (1148 – 1227) permitted the Dominican Order, thus it instituted friaries in Italy and throughout Europe.[55] According to legend, before St. Dominic’s birth, his mother had a dream regarding the birth of her son. She dreamed that “she carried a dog with a lit torch in its mouth, which set fire to the earth; and at Dominic’s baptism, a brilliant star . . . appeared on his forehead to shed its light over the world.”[56]

During the Troy civilization, Queen Hecuba, the wife of King Priam and mother of Hector, Paris, Cassandra, and Troilus, had a dream. According to legend, Queen Hecuba dreamed “one night that she gave birth to a flaming torch which set the city on fire, so when Paris was born he was abandoned, setting in motion the events which culminated in the Trojan War.”[57]

In the Byzantium culture, Hero fell in love with Leander. According to the myth, Leander “swam across the Hellespont to reach her, guided by a lighted torch at the top of Hero’s tower.”[58] In the Indian culture, Mangala is “[t]he planet Mars, identified with Kartikeya, the god of war. He was the son of Siva and the Earth.”[59] Mangala is also known as Gaganolmuka, which means “the torch of the sky.”[60] Trump XV of the Tarot is the Devil. The left hand of the Devil is holding a lit reversed torch. The lit inverted torch signifies “the belief that nothing exists beyond the material.”[61]

The concept of ‘liberty’ is often represented by illumination or light. Mr. Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi (1834 – 1904), who was a French Freemason, designed the Statue of Liberty.[62] Although Mr. Bartholdi designed the Statue of Liberty, Mr. Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (1832 – 1923), who was also a French Freemason, held the task of building the Statue of Liberty.[63] “[I]t seems highly likely that his giant statue of a ‘robed woman holding aloft a torch’ to serve as a sort of lighthouse for the Suez Canal, later, New York Harbor, may well have been imagined by him as Isis-Pharia and the Lighthouse of Alexandria.”[64]

Concerning Christianity, a burning torch, which was originally a pagan symbol, “was adopted by Renaissance artists as a symbol of the Nativity,”[65] but it is not common today. The church adopted nineteen symbols[66] to represent the Passion of Jesus Christ. According to the Gospel of John, “So Judas, having procured a band of soldiers and some officers from the chief priests and the Pharisees, went there with lanterns and torches and weapons.”[67] “The lantern, or lantern of the Roman guard, is a symbol of the betrayal. . . . [Likewise] the torch, which is usually shown crossed in saltire with a club or a sword, to distinguish it from other forms of symbolic torches.”[68]

Sometimes a torch is used to represent Matthew 5:14-16 (ESV), which states, “You are the light of the world. A city set on a hill cannot be hidden. Nor do people light a lamp and put it under a basket, but on a stand, and it gives light to all in the house. In the same way, let your light shine before others, so that they may see your good works and give glory to your Father who is in heaven.”

The Roman Catholic Church is known for saints. St. Basilassa is represented by lilies, book, torch, lions, and sword.[69] St. Chrysanthus is represented by an axe, torch, flames, and stones. St. Dominic, as mentioned above, is represented by lilies, dog, book, star in forehead, pilgrim’s staff, rosary, cross, and dog holding torch.[70] St. Dorothea is represented by an angel holding basket of flowers or of fruit, burning torch, apples or roses in a basket, pincers, sword, and crown.[71] St. Irenaeus of Lyons is represented by a lighted torch and book.[72] Saints Julian and Basilassa of Egypt are represented by lighted torch, lily, and book.[73]

Saints Medard and Geldard are represented by two or three white doves, eagle, knife, ox, colt, torch, and tooth.[74] St. Regina is represented by a rayed cross with a dove on it, fire, sword, crown, lamb at her feet, two angels holding a crown, torch, and fountain.[75] Saints Serapia and Sabina of Rome are represented by a flaming torch and club.[76] St. Theodotus of Galatia is represented by a torch and sword, rack, and wheel.[77]

A cresset is “[a] stone bored so as to hold several candles. Also an iron frame holding a torch or flare. Symbol of the Gospel light held aloft by our Lord, or by His church.”[78] A sword and torch saltire is a Passion symbol.[79] In Christianity overall a torch may represent enlightenment, zeal, the Gospel, the Nativity, and the Passion.[80] An upright torch means life whereas an inverted torch means death. Two burning torches represent Jesus Christ the Light of the World (catacombs).[81]

In Christian theology, caritas, which is Latin for “charity, affection, love, and esteem,”[82] is the virtue of love. The lamb, torch, flaming heart, children, or beggars usually represent caritas.[83] One of the four cardinal virtues[84] is prudentia, which is Latin for “knowledge of any subject, prudence, sagacity, practical, wisdom, and discretion.”[85] The serpent, mirror, sieve, and torch represent prudentia.[86] Lust is one of the Seven Deadly Sins. Lust is represented by many symbols; the torch is one of them.[87]

In the Mesopotamian culture, Ishtar was the goddess of love, sex, war, and fertility.[88] Ishtar was known as “Inanna to the Sumerians, Astarte in Syria, Ashtoreth in the Bible, and Isis in Egypt.”[89] Her attributes were laurel, myrtle and rose, shell or dolphin, the torch or flaming heart and chariot drawn by doves or swans.[90] She was known for “[l]ove, desire, sexuality, pleasure, rebirth, imagination, harmony and happiness as the evening star (in Mesopotamia, war as the morning star).”[91] During ancient marriages, especially with the Greeks and Romans, “the bride’s mother, bearing the wedding torch, kindled at her own hearth; other torches preceded and followed.”[92]

Kenaz, which is a Nordic rune stone, refers to a torch or flame, but literally means “pine torch.”[93] The Old English poem states, “The torch we know by its flame, which brings illumination and light wherever noble souls congregate.”[94] Kenaz, a pine torch, was used as an “instrument to light a hall or outdoor place. [T]herefore a symbol of light and illumination. On a personal level, it stands for warmth, friendship, and love. . . . Spiritually, the torch represents enlightenment, the brightness of spirit that resides within. It is the inner light that [one] must tend as [he walks] through the often dark wastes of the world. Bearing a torch, [he has] the power to keep at bay any evils that may assail [him]. . . . [T]he torch of learning, the light of knowledge and wisdom that is passed from one generation to another.”[95]

This commentary would not be complete without mentioning the Illuminati and Freemasonry. First, who or what is the Illuminati? Illuminati derives from the Latin illumino, which means “to make light, enlighten, illuminate.”[96] Illuminati is plural, thus, it means the enlightened ones. The origins of the Illuminati are intricate and shrouded in vagueness; nevertheless, the information available sheds understanding of this faction. First, the term Illuminati was applied to ancient rites of baptism.[97] The formal procedure consisted of adults who carried a lit torch.[98] The flaming torch in this ancient baptism symbolized “the faith and grace he has received in the sacrament.”[99]

Secondly, around 1575, a religious sect with the name Illuminati launched in the Kingdom of Spain.[100] The Illuminati rejected the sacraments, so they believed they could achieve perfection via a mental prayer.[101] During the Spanish Inquisition, many members of the Illuminati were executed as heretics.[102] This inquisition censored the Illuminati for some time; however, they rejuvenated in 1623. Shortly after their resurgence, the Illuminati faced an additional inquisition, therefore completely suppressing them.[103]

Thirdly, in 1634, another sect assumed the name Illuminati in the Kingdom of France.[104] This new Illuminati claimed a special revelation to achieve Christian perfection. Mr. Anthony Bocquet was the first of the sect to achieve the alleged perfection.[105] “This ‘perfection’ resulted in that which the Familists called ‘deification,’ and as with that sect, this principle led them into Antinomianism.”[106] King Louis XIII (1601 – 1643) eventually eradicated the entire Illuminati in France.[107] The resemblance of the Illuminati in Spain and France are eerily identical; perhaps surviving members of the former?

Finally, on the first of May, 1776, an organization formed in the Electorate of Bavaria.[108] The organization would choose the name Illuminati. The Illuminati was established by Dr. Johann Adam Weishaupt (1748 – 1830).[109] Dr. Weishaupt was a professor of Cannon Law at the University of Ingolstadt. The goals of the Illuminati were to counteract the influence of the Jesuits, eliminate all governments, abolish all religions, and install worldwide democracy and collectivism.[110] The secrecy of the Illuminati wrecked, thus in 1784, by decree of the Bavarian government, the Illuminati was wholly removed.[111] Speculation is the roots of the Illuminati were so entrenched in Bavaria and throughout Europe, surviving members assimilated in other organizations throughout Europe, one in particular–Freemasonry.

In Symbolism of Freemasonry, Mr. J.D. Buck (1838 – 1916) says, “True Masonry has, for ages, held aloft the torch-light of Toleration, Equity, and Fraternity.”[112] The altars of Freemasonry have patterned themselves after the sanctuaries of the ancient mysteries and “they have held aloft the Torch of Liberty.”[113] In Morals and Dogma, Mr. Albert Pike (1809 – 1891) states, “[E]very Masonic Lodge represents the universe. . . . In it are represented the sun, moon, and stars; three great torches in the East, West, and South, forming a triangle, give it light . . . by their number, three, the trinity of power, wisdom, and harmony, which presided at the building of this marvelous work these three great lights also represent the great mystery of the three principles of creation, dissolution, or destruction, and reproduction or regeneration, consecrated by all creeds in their numerous trinities.”[114] Mr. Pike further states, “The luminous pedestal, lighted by the perpetual flame within, is a symbol of that light of reason, given by God to man, by which he is enabled to read in the Book of Nature the record of the thought, the revelation of the attributes of the Deity.”[115]

The author has covered the meaning, representative nature, and accounted use of the torch. By no means is this composition a thorough dissertation about the torch. There are many sources out there concerning the torch and its plentiful symbolic meanings. The aim was to give the reader a synopsis on the subject of the torch. If this article proves anything, man is truly an inventive and a theoretical creature. Man is able to take an object, like the torch, and generate numerous abstractions about that object. Those representations may be similar or opposite. In any case they show how man is a distinctive creature compared to his fellow creatures inhabiting Earth.

[1] Marchant, J.R.V., and Joseph F. Charles. “Torqueo.” Cassel’s Latin Dictionary. London, England: Cassel & Company, Ltd., 1892. Print.

[2] Brachet, A. “Torche.” An Etymological Dictionary of the French Language. 2nd ed. Oxford, England: The Clarendon Press, 1878. Print.

[3] Whitney, William Dwight, and Benjamin E. Smith. “Torch.” The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia. Rev. ed., Enlarged ed. Vol. VIII. New York, NY: The Century Company, 1911. Print.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Webster, Noah. “Torch.” An American Dictionary of the English Language. 1st ed. Vol. II. New York, NY: S. Converse, 1828. Print.

[6] See 3 supra.

[7] Christian, James L. Philosophy: An Introduction to the Art of Wondering. 10th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2009. 595. Print.

[8] O’Connell, Mark, and Raje Airey. Illustrated Encyclopedia of Signs and Symbols. Lanham, MD: Anness Publishing Ltd., 2006. 8. Print.

[9] Cirlot, J.E. “Alpha and Omega.” A Dictionary of Symbols. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, Inc., 2002. Print.

[10] Ibid.

[11] Ibid.

[12] Revelation 22:13 (ESV)

[13] Oskar Seyffert. “Ares.” A Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, Mythology, Religion, Literature, and Art. 6th ed. London, England: Swan Sonnenschein and Company, Lim., 1901. Print.

[14] Oliver, George. The History of Initation. New York, NY: Jno. W. Leonard & Company, 1855. 121. Print.

[15] Ibid.

[16] See 13 supra. “Artemis.”

[17] Bechtel, John H. “Comus.” A Dictionary of Mythology. Philadelphia, PA: The Pen Publishing Company, 1905. Print.

[18] Ibid.

[19] Fairbanks, Arthur. “Comus.” Elder Philostratus, Younger Philostratus, Callistratus.. London, England: William Heinemann, 1931. Print.

[20] See 13 supra. “Demeter.”

[21] Ibid.

[22] See 13 supra. “Eileithyia.”

[23] Ibid.

[24] See 13 supra. “Eleusinia.”

[25] Ibid.

[26] See 13 supra. “Eos.”

[27] Ibid.

[28] Beeton, Samuel Orchart. “Cupid.” Beeton’s Classical Dictionary. London, England: Ward, Lock, and Company, 1871. Print.

[29] Ibid.

[30] Thomas, Joseph. “Bellona.” Universal Pronouncing Dictionary of Biography and Mythology. 4th ed. Vol. I. Philadelphia, PA: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1915. Print.

[31] Ibid.

[32] See 9 supra. “Hecate.”

[33] Ibid.

[34] See 13 supra. “Hestia.”

[35] Ibid.

[36] Tresidder, Jack. “Dominic, Saint.” The Complete Dictionary of Symbols. San Fransico, CA: Chronicle Books LLC, 2005. Print.

[37] See 13 supra. “Pan.”

[38] Ibid.

[39] See 13 supra. “Panathenaea.”

[40] Ibid.

[41] Chopra, Ramesh. “Thanatos.” Academic Dictionary of Mythology. Delhi, India: Isha Books, 2005. Print.

[42] Ibid.

[43] See 13 supra. “Torch Races.”

[44] Ibid.

[45] See 9 supra. “Twins”

[46] Ibid.

[47] See 13 supra. “Bendis.”

[48] Ibid.

[49] “Minaret.” Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary. Rev. ed. Springfield, MA: G. & C. Merriam Company, 1913. Print.

[50] See 9 supra. “Minaret.”

[51] Ibid.

[52] Walker, Barbara G. “Torch.” The Woman’s Dictionary of Symbols and Sacred Objects. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 1988. Print.

[53] Ibid.

[54] See 36 supra. “Dominic, Saint.”

[55] Ibid.

[56] Ibid.

[57] Ibid. “Hecuba.”

[58] Ibid. “Hero and Leander.”

[59] Dowson, John. “Mangala.” A Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology and Religion. London, England: Trubner & Company, 1879. Print.

[60] Ibid.

[61] Pollack, Rachel. Seventy-Eight Degrees of Wisdom: A Book of Tarot. San Fransico, CA: Red Wheel/Weiser, LLC, 2007. 112-117. Print.

[62] Hancock, Graham, and Rober Bauval. The Master Game: Unmasking the Secret Rulers of the World. New York, NY: The Disinformation Company Ltd., 2011. 498-501. Print.

[63] Ibid.

[64] Ibid.

[65] Webber, F.R., and Ralph Adams Cram. Church Symbolism. 2nd ed. Cleveland, OH: The Central Lithograph Company, 1938. Print.

[66] Gethsemane; lantern; torch; sword and staff; crucifixion; betrayal; Peter’s sword; rope; scourges; crown of thorns; basin and ewer; cock; nails; ladder and reed; seamless coat; reed and hyssop; cross and winding sheet; and the empty cross. These symbols of the Passion are depicted on shields.

[67] John 18:3 (ESV)

[68] See 65 supra.

[69] Ibid.

[70] Ibid.

[71] Ibid.

[72] Ibid.

[73] Ibid.

[74] Ibid.

[75] Ibid.

[76] Ibid.

[77] Ibid.

[78] Ibid.

[79] Ibid.

[80] Ibid.

[81] Ibid.

[82] See 1 supra. “Caritas.”

[83] Becker, Udo. “Caritas.” The Continuum Encyclopedia of Symbols. New York, NY: The Continuum International Publishing Group Inc., 2000. Print.

[84] All four cardinal virtues are prudence, temperance, justice, and fortitude.

[85] See 1 supra. “Prudentia.”

[86] See 83 supra. “Prudentia.”

[87] Tresidder, Jack. “Seven Deadly Sins.” The Watkins Dictionary of Symbols. London, England: Watkins Publishing, 2008. Print.

[88] Salisbury, Joyce E. “Ishtar.” Encyclopedia of Women in the Ancient World. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, Inc., 2001. Print.

[89] Ibid.

[90] See 87 supra. “Venus”

[91] Ibid.

[92] See 13 supra. “Marriage.”

[93] Mountfort, Paul Rhys. Nordic Runes: Understanding, Casting, and Interpreting the Ancient Viking Oracle. Rochester, VT: Destiny Books, 2003. 96-101. Print.

[94] Ibid.

[95] Ibid.

[96] See 1 supra. “Illumino.”

[97] Buck, Charles. “Illuminati.” A Theological Dictionary Containing Definitions of all Religious Terms. Philadelphia, PA: Joseph J. Woodward, 1830. Print.

[98] Ibid.

[99] Ibid.

[100] Ibid.

[101] Blunt, John Henry. “Illuminati.” Dictionary of Sects, Heresies, Ecclesiastical Parties, and Schools of Religious Thought. London, England: Rivingtons, 1874. Print.

[102] Ibid.

[103] Ibid.

[104] Ibid.

[105] Ibid.

[106] Ibid.

[107] Ibid.

[108] Abbott, Lyman, and T.J. Conant. “Illuminati.” A Dictionary of Religious Knowledge. New York, NY: Harper & Brothers, 1885. Print.

[109] Ibid.

[110] Ibid.

[111] Ibid.

[112] Buck, J.D. Symbolism of Freemasonry or Mystic Masonry and the Greater Mysteries of Antiquity. 3rd ed. Chicago, IL: Regan Publishing Company, 1925. Print.

[113] Ibid.

[114] Pike, Albert. Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry. Charleston, SC: Supreme Council of the Thirty-Third Degree for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States, 1871. Print.

[115] Ibid.

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